Star Bicycles, H.B. Smith Machine Co. (USA) Katalog (Kopie) 1887

Vorschau (2,36 MiB)

fi ET NS A es ee + nt Directions. Terms, Net cash with order, or C. O, D. when order is accompanied by money enough to pay Express charges both ways in caso tho ma. chine is not accepted. Freight and Express charges to bo paid by tho purchaser. We cannot guarantee the safe delivery of goods; our ro- sponsibility veases when goods are delivered to Express or Freight Offices. In ordering it is always well to give weight of rider and if selection of size is left to us, give length of leg; also heighth. As a rulo small machines, sizes under 54-inch, give the best satisfaction for road use. We do not recommend anything larger than 51. We warrant all of our Star Bicycles and Tricycles to be free from imperfections, in material or manufacture, and will make good, at any time within a year, any defects in them not caused by misuse or neg- lect. All defective parts must be sent us for examination beforo any claim is allowed. Smithville, N. J., is on the Camden and Burlington Co. R. R. (Amboy Division of P. R. R.) 20 miles from Philadelphia, and 75 miles from New York. We are always pleased to see our customers and friends here. Tako the Ferry foot of Market St., Philadelphia, if coming that way ; if via. New York, tuke either Cortland Street or Desbrosses Street Ferries and come via. Trenton. (2) | INTRODUCTORY, ——— 9 —____ Since the issue of our first formal Catalogue relating to Bicycles in 1886, two large editions have been exhausted, and now that some changes and improve inents have been made on the machine there has been a general call for the Catalogue of 1887, describing them. We willin this connection say that as a whole the machines of 1886 were very satisfactory and it required a whole sea- son to detect any little weaknesses, and these have been corrected for the ma- chine of 1887. We have also spent much time and money in determining the proper size of the front steering wheel. When too large they were found to be unwieldy, and when too small they consumed driving power, &c. After a series | of experiments and long testing the sizes finally adopted have been found to be | the best, and no changes from the proportions given will be made | The sizes are 21 inch diameter for 42 inch bicycle; 22 inches for 45 and 48 ; | 23 inches for 51 ; and 24 inches diameter for 54 inch machine. Besides increas- | ing the sizes of the front wheels the steering bar has been strengthened over the wheels and other details of the machine have been fully perfected, | We have added to our list a Star Tricycle, which as now designed is of a size suitable for young migses. Larger and smaller sizes will be brought out and it is hoped that the lever motion will again prove its superiority over the crank ac- | tion. We are happy to say that the former prejudices against the Star are fast | vanishing and the popularity of the machine is assured. We have always avoid- ed invidious comparisons and have no time to spare except to sing the praises of our own wheel. We embrace the Opportunity to thank our friends and patrons for their support of the Star and we shall hope that the machine of 1887, will merit the good wishes of all. — > History and Growth of the Star Bicycle. The Star was the first practical Safety Bicycle placed on the market and since its advent a large number of “Dwarf,” and other Bemi-safety machines have ap- peared. At first the revolution created by the Star, was followed by small ma. | chines with front drivers and the exponent of safety was sitting back on the small hind wheel. The Star has always been a rear driving wheel with the | small steering wheel in front. The Star revolution continued and during the | last year a number of rear driving wheels have been brought out by English | makers, but they are all driven by the old method—by cranks—while the Star is driven by an independent lever motion which operate clutches and thus secure a continuous driving power without dead centres, Lately some have applied the lever and clutch motion to front driving wheels, thus admitting the advantages (3) md. Ad —+ | of the Star driving power, but they do not secure safety to the rider. Thus it will be seen that the Star combines two valuable features—that of safety, and a continuous power—through its form and construction, and therefore is the only ' machine that combines all the elements ofa firat-class practical wheel. Hence it will be seen that the Star differs from other machines in two very essential points apd the reasons for such an innovation will be set forth in the subsequent descriptions cf the macbine. The name “Star” we might here say, arose from the appearance of the first wheels made, which were built with tangential spokes of such tangency as to form a double star with the spokes at the hub—hence the name. Machines with the little wheel in front and also machines driven with levers and clutches in some form were long since invented, but to Mr. George W. Pressey is due the credit of first organizing a bicycle with all the elements of the original American Star, and to whom two patents were granted in 188), and from whom we procured the exclusive right to manufacture and sell the American Star Bicycle. We commenced the manufacture of the machine in the Spring of 1881, and those who have purchased machines from year to year could tell a story of rapid progress. The first machines were crude enough and lacked many adjust- ments that were subsequently applied. In the first few machines the spokes were riveted in the rim without provision for adjustment. They were afterwards either screwed into the hub or hub nuts, or provided with nipples in the rim. _ The rims or felloes were changed from round grooves to square seats and rubbers _moulded to conform. The framing was improved to solid halves, bandle bars lengthened, brake improved, collets for spring made adjustable, &c., &c., until the modern machines of our own patterns of 1884 and 1885, were fully devel- oped, and which with the more modern improvements will be fully described in subsequent pages. General Description, Or Points of Merit Relating to Star Bicycles. Owing to the peculiar organization of the Star Bicycles there are certain dis- tinguishing and valuable features that are, as a noted crank rider once said of the machine, “Excluded from any other similar vehicle,’ and of which the following are some of the points claimed : Srreneta.—The framing is in solid halves and is one of the finest steel forg- ings made ;—is of a braced triangular form, and rigidly and durably connected. Sarety.—The dangerous “Headers” which occur on the “Ordinary” machine have induced various manufacturers to make “Dwarf” machines with the ex- ponent of ‘‘Safety” based upon sitting back towards the hind small wheel, but their success is only partial The Star is provided with the small steering wheel in front, thus making a rolling support or brace against momentum occasioned by an obstruction or sudden stoppage of the machine, and hence the Star rider can go over: very rough roads or coast any hill with perfect safety, and can go over very large obstructions if necessary. Ease or ConTrou.—As the wheel is held firmly in lines with the framing, the push of the rider des not throw it out of its course, and the machine may be easily ridden without hands, (4) STEERS MORE EASILY.—As the push of the rider does not affect the wheels the | steering can be made very sensitive and quick 80 that shorter turns can be made—and it is arranged 80 that in turning at right angles suddenly to avoid a fence or ditch, the rider can dismount on the inside of the circle where he can avoid falling. Easter to Mount.—The step being at the left side of the machine near the saddle the rider steps easily to and from the seat instead of climbing up from behind ; and in all “Ride aud Run” contests the Star is mounted and dismount- ed the quickest. Comrort.—As the Star is provided with a long flexible spring much comfort is added to the rider, in going over rough roads. ADJUSTABLE POSITION OF SADDLE.—Almost any kind of saddle may be used on the Star and as it can be adjusted over the driving wheel the gravity of the rider can be used for propelling the machine and the rider can sit erectly. Size or Macuing.—The Star being more or less self adjusting the rider does not require a machine so nearly his size, and hence a large man can ride a small machine which may be made lighter and stiffer; anda boy can ride the same machine, Economy or Powrr.—Other bicycles are propelled by cranks turned by the foot, a method of propulsion now out of use in most kinds of machinery. On a six-inch crank a bicycler must make a muscular motion of about 374 inches in order to bear down on his crank an average of less than 4 inches full power. The Star, by use of levers and clutches has a continuous power, which turns the wheel two thirds around with the same motion and exertion required to move the crank one-half round on the old machine, thus enabling the rider to go faster and easier with the same amount of labor, at the same time giving independent actions to the levers, the rider pushing with one foot or both at pleasure, or sit- ting with his feet resting on the pedals, which do not move unless he moves them. The gravity of the rider is more perfectly utilized as the arc through which the feet move is of a large circle—the length of the lever being the radius —and has a vertical direction under the rider. The spring which brings the levers back is of less tension than is usually back-pedaled on the ordinary ma- chine, and the action of the levers is positive and quick. Toe Braxe.—The Star is provided with a strong and durable brake, and it may be applied so as to lock the wheel without any possible danger of a header. Again very little exertion is required to put the brake on with the hands while the feet may rest in coasting and thus economize power,—it consumes power to back-pedal. The Star bicycle is conceded to be a practical machine adapted alike for pleas- ure and for business. It now holds all the World’s safety records up to 20 miles, and also it has won nearly all the open road races in which it has participated, including the Great 50-Mile Road Race at Clarksville, Mo.—3h. 7min. 38%sec. Holds the 24 hour record for the World—305 miles. The Star has likewise won all the open hill climbing contests since 1883. We might refer to very many other meritorivus feats, while some of our cus- tomers have written out over fifty superior claims for the Star, but we will be content to pass to descriptions of the various machines. (5) et + + | Classification of Machines, and a Description of the dif- ferent Clutches, Rims, Tires, dc, The Star Bicycles may be divided into five classes, viz : | Ist. The American Star, with gravity pawls; Spring over steering wheel; Jacket covering over steering bar, &c., &c., as made during 1886 with many | added improvements. | 2nd. The Semi-Racing Star, which dispenses with the Spring over front wheel | and jacket over the Steering rod. Is fitted with Patent Silent Ratchet, Hollow Levers, Solid Steel Hub, Long flexible Spring, or if for racing a light hood for supporting the Saddle, &c. 3rd. The Special Star, also dispensing with the jacket covering and Spring over the steering bar and front wheel. Has Patent Silent Ratchet, Hollow Levers, Solid Steel Hub, and is on thelines of the Semi Racer, made low head with long handle bars dropped to a convenient position. Provided with a long flexible seat Spring the front end of which is attached to an oscillating coil to compensate for fore and aft motion. A comfortable road machine for all kinds | of roads, 4th. The Star Racer, made with hollow framing, hollow levers, hollow rims, | light tangential spokes solid steel hub, low head, &c. Rigidity and lightness being constantly keptin view. The machine is more or less Special and is | adapted for racing only on the track. | 5th. The Pony Star, which may be made on any of the above lines with the distinction that the driving wheel is 42 or 45 inches diameter and the hinged ends of levers are dropped so as to bring the are movement of the foot in the right direction when pedaling. Further descriptions of éach style will be found with the accompanying en- gravings. We will now refer to our patent Rim and Tire. The engravings represent three principal sizes used, although for racing we use a smaller size designated No 4, being about 4 inch across the face. Fig. 1 is wide and rather heavy, and is adapted for the larger machines and (6) A = for use on stony roads or where there is much sand, but for general use on fair roads the No. 2 is large enough, and all machines up to 54-inch will be fitted with that size unless ordered to the contrary. Fig. 3 is used for the front wheels, also on Semi-racers and Pony Stars for smooth roads. The Rubber tires are made in iron moulds and are provided with a contract- ile base of tough rubber to insure holding the tire witbin the flanges of the rim. The interior of the tire is made of a light elastic rubber, while the whole is sur- rounded with a very tough durable coat of rubber that will resist cuts and wear well. We will state that most of the tires sent out in 1882 are good to this day, while in subsequent years we have been so unfortunate as to receive some de- fective tires. It will be noticed that the rims are flat seated and that the tires are made to conform to the shape of the rim. During 1881, we tried the U V, and Crescent rims, also a lot of Invincible hol- low rims, but all were found to be too weak and would not withstand the strain to which the Star rider subjected the machine. To prevent buckling it was thought to present a flat section in the base and it proved a great success, and it was also found difficult to make the tires stay in a rounded groove, but the square groove prevented it from rolling out, hence the new rim and tire madea stronger wheel and one in which the tire could be cemented to remain. Next it was found that the spokes were breaking, which brought about another valuable invention, the Double Butt-ended Solid Drawn Spoke, and for which patents were granted January 29th, 1884. At first we upset the ends of the spokes butof course in doing this the fibre was disarranged or broken and caused a great deal of annoyance. We next im- ported a lot of solid drawn single butt-ended spokes which answered very well when washers were used, but in solid rims where it was desirable to pass the spoke through the rim and screw into the hub like a screw bolt it left an un- filled hole in the rim unless the outer end was upset, when we were again met with the old trouble of breakage. The solid drawn double butt-ended spoke overcame the difficulty and now the interior portion of the spoke is reduced three sizes by drawing. With the very best spoke that could be made the trouble of breaking had been greatly reduced, but still now and then they would break, which excited our thought in another direction for the cause and the re- sult was another great improvement, this time in the hub of the wheel. We refer to the Nutted Spoke and corresponding groove inthe hub flange. The hub is now provided with a groove in which rounded face nuts are seated when the spokes pass through the hub flange and screw direct into case-hardened nuts. These nuts peing rounded to suit the groove in the flange of course only present a line contact in the flange parallel to the driving strain and hence there is no purchase over which to bend | (7) | the spoke from the propelling force and asthe spokes are not bent back and forth as in the old way we have a minimum of breakage. Again we had trouble to keep the wheel taut on the old plan as the spokes would loosen in the rim at each turn and gradually unscrew and back out, but the nutted spoke passes through the hub flange in a manner that the suspension action of the wheel can move at the hub and the spokes at the rim remain tight, hence they cannot back out. There are other improvements relating to the brake, collet, spindles, clips, &c., but they will be noticed with the descriptions of the different machines. The ratchet mechanism received a great deal of study and attention from the first conception of the machine. Mr. Pressey first applied and patented a fric- tion clutch and went over about the same ground that late inventors of such clutches had to travel. We also tried friction pawls in grooves; rolls and balls impinging between wedging surfaces ;—friction straps, &c., but all gave way to a simple practical Gravity Pawl and Ratchet, which was finally adopted for the American Star Bicycle, and we append the fol- lowing as a brief description, reference being had of the engravings : Fig. 1 gives the details of the ratchet boxes, with ratchet, collet, spring, and box each in place. The spring Bis shown in broken sectional coilg. Collet C shows its round seat on axle and one “tang” engaging inside end of spring. The slot in right side of C engages with a small pin projecting from side of frame which prevents collet from turning when Spring is wound. D shows the ratchet, and E represents the sleeve attached to same which gives it bearing on project- ing end of hub. The whole is encased in a sheet metal box, H, around which is wound the strap, the tension of which imparts the rotary motion. The end of the hub forms a hollow spindle which butts against C, being prevented from binding by a shoulder on axle. The axle of machine is of course understood to be fast in the frame and has no movement. Fig. 2 shows box H with D E removed, and spring B with collet C showing in place at bottom of box. This cut shows four tangs on C by which adjustment of B is facilitated. (8) be Fig. 3 shows pawl cage and pawls, six in number, dropping into place. It is of course understood that the pawls work by gravity alone and engage at the bottom as shown. The pawl cage screws on to the hub and becomes a part of game when the machine is operated. Fig. 4 shows ratchet E D complete. On the back will be seen a tang on which the outer end of spring hooks. The spring works freely in the chamber between back wall of D Eand end of box H, being wound by rotation of the entire me- chanism around axle with collet C fast thereon holding inner end of spring, which last reacts and causes box and contained mechanism to return to the original position. The machines of 1882, 1883 and most of 1884 were fitted with this Ratchet. During these years the Star was. doing some good work both on the road and on the path, but to meet the demand for a noiseless clutch we conducted a number of experiments and made many draughts of the “Coming clutch” with at first indifferent success. The friction idea had been disposed of and the study was to makea positive and at the same time noiseless clutch. To be wholly -positive the notches had to be retained. The ordinary gravity pawls were at first pro- vided with small friction buttons at the outer ends which rubbed against the driving case as the wheel pulled them around and of course the friction would draw them out and the same friction would throw themin when the driver moved faster than the wheel. Thesame results were obtained by placing the pawls on the driver and allowing the friction discs to rub against the hub of the wheel. The next step was to place the friction pieces to an upper extension of the pawl so as to apply at right angles with rotation ; and then it was noticed that the friction had to be great enough to-overcome gravity, which suggested an (9) — + intermediate piece to balance the gravity ofthe pawls, and to whicha slight | | friction could be applied. Thus step by step we came to the | | Silent Ratchet, and for which patents were granted in July of 1885. A few machines with the | silent ratchet were fitted up and used during 1883, and all the racing machines of | 1884 were of the two way silent ratchet. We have hadan Opportunity to examine | some of the first machines made, which have traveled thousands of miles, and to | our great surprise they show little or no signs of wear. The ratchet may be heard to click a little if tte foot is depressed slower than the wheel is coasting | but in practice the ratchet is practically silent and consumes none of the running | power ofthe wheel. The following description will give a better idea ofits L construction : | Fig. 1 represents the Hub proper—through the flanges of which the spokes pass and screw into case-hardened nuts which are seated within a groove as before described. The bell piece Lis screwed on to an extension of the hub and contains the notch ring—both are made of steel—the latter being accurately notched by cutting, and carefully hardened, and both are removable and like- wige replacable in case of accident. The extension K represents a portion of the spindle, the same being shown in Fig. 2. This latter figure represents the driv- ing box, showing the strap C, covering D, manner of fastening the strap A and B, and pawls F F, and also containing the retracting spring beyond the wall E E. This spring hooks into the hollow collet, Fig. 3, in the manner shown in Fig. 4 (10) ue and this hollow collet admits of a good long bearing to the driving box. The friction piece I I is separate from the driving mechanism and also from the hub, except through small crank wires G. This friction piece is divided and held together by screws and springs J, so as to produce a slight friction upon the still shaft K. Now when the driving box is in place the pawls will be directly under | the notches and the friction piece between the hub and box separated from the latter by a collar, but connected as before stated by the wires. The action of the clutch will be understood when it is remembered that the friction piece controls the outer ends of the pawls and cannot move around the shaft except as drawn by the pawls which are hinged so as to move freely on their bearings. The fric- | tion piece being parallel with the pawls the wires are necessarily at about right angles, hence as the driving box moves forward under a pressure from the foot the first action of the pawls must be to spread into the notches as the friction | piece refuses to move under so slight a pressure, but soon as the pawls engage with notches the forward movement must drive the wheel, the whole including the friction piece moving together till the end of the stroke, the wheel contin- | uing to move, but as the foot reverses to come back the retracting spring in the | | case reverses the direction of the driving mechanism, when again the friction | piece comes into play, thistimeto withdraw the pawls from the notches to a | stop and then coming back with the driver, but of course holding the pawls out until the foot again depresses the treadles. Hence it will be seen that the clutch | must be very positive, and noiseless except when the foot is depressed slower | | than the wheel is coasting; and also it will be seen that the wheel can be run | backwards in handling, which is a convenience, and as no friction is taken from the running wheel it must run perfectly free in coasting. The friction required to control the pawls is imperceptible, being only the fraction of an ounce. The pawls being diametrically opposed to one another balance the strain that would otherwise fall upon the spindle, and therefore there is no binding as in the case where the pawls operate only on one side of the ratchet box. The ratchet which runs only one way of course takes its friction from the run- ning wheel and therefore consumes a little power, however slight, all the time, but of course is perfectly noiseless under all conditions. After a thorough test of now some four years we think best to recommend the two-way silent ratchet as being more satisfactory, and its durability has been confirmed by thousands of riders. For the Special and Semi-Racer machines, the Levers are made of weldless steel tubing and hardened, and the hinged ends coned without extra charge this season. The Pedals will be plain. The experienced Star rider prefers plain pedals because they are firm and less liable to rattle, and lighter too. The levers are fitted with two pins upon which to hitch the drum straps, the forward pin being for speed, the other for power. This brings us to our patent Changeable Power Attachment, of which we submit an engraving. We cannot recall how many times some- thing of this kind has been invented by different riders. The idea “struck” us | the first time we saw the machine, which was in 1880; and our first conception | of a movable fulcrum was that of a sliding block and for which patents were granted to Moses G. Crane under an application made October 6th, 1881. But | prior to this we had developed the radial link and constructed working models (11) | 4 | — baci. a which were satisfactory and which with some supplemental links were finally adopted In order to avoid an interference with Mr. Crane on the general ap- plication of a movable or changeable power attachment we purchased the ex- clnsive right of his entire patent, and have otherwise fortified ourselves for the exclusive right to use this important invention. The engraving represents the two positions of the Power Attachment, the one on this side being up is at the higest speed, while the one on the opposite side being down is at its greatest power, which is about 20 per cent over the speeded position, and hence a hill may be ascended that much easier by the aid of these Power Traps. In making the radial link practical we found it neccessary to add the supple- mental links so as to avoid the step on one side of the machine and also to | bring the toe pieces within easy reach of the feet ; and in putting on these links | it was found necessary to arrange them 80 that the power of the foot to shift them should be applied at or about right angles to the radial link 80 as to make the adjustment not only practical but very easy —that a slight touch with the toe will throw them forward and back as desired. In using the Power Traps the change from speed to power, or vice versa, is made without stopping or dismounting. For instance, at or near the bottom of a hill one stroke of the foot on each side changes the traps back to power and when the ascent of the hill is made a single touch of the toe on each side brings the straps to the speeded positions, and as these changes are almost instantane- cus, and made while coasting, little or no time is lost. The Power Traps are arranged to suit either hollow or solid levers, and can be put on old levers if returned to the works. They are always an extra. (12) - + Se zie The Brake, being very important on the Star, received much attention and it was some time before it was developed in satisfactory shape. The engraving represents The Brake, as now applied on all of the machines except perhaps on Racing Machines where the simple thumb-brake will be retained, or on machines for fancy riding where it is desired to turn the front steering wheel all the way around, in which case the old American Star brake will be retained. The present brake is an im- proved modification of the one used on the Special Star during 1886—the spoon extending downward in the direction of the running of the wheel. The ring connection is divided and provided with adjusting holes where it connects with the extension of spoon, so that the brake may be applied hard or soft as desired. The ring connection with the lever admits of operating the brake at any angle the machine can be steered, and the lever is always within easy reach of the rider without losing hold of the handle bar The spring under the spoon holds all the parts to place so as to avoid rattling. As all sliding parts are avoided there can be little or no wear of the connections. The handle-bars are now generally bent to cow-horn shape and brought back to a convenient position for the rider as has been determined by experience. The Saddle as shown is a late modification of the Kelley Spring Saddle and which appears to be giving very general satisfaction, but experience has taught us that no one style of saddle will suit everybody, and hence we have made very many modifications. We make a few Suspension Saddles known as the “Long distance” type, but generally the call is for an easy “Spring Saddle’. We were perhaps the first to introduce the coil spring saddle and since 1882 quite a num- ber have been put on the market and some of them possessing merit. We be- (13) lieve upon the whole that our Spring Saddle has given the most general satisface tion and it is the only style we furnish with the machines, but any kind of sad- dle can be furnished at a small additional cost, and hence customers can have a choice. The saddle illustrated is quite elastic and provision is made to allow the front end to depress in case the rider is thrown violently on the horn of the saddle. We shall be glad to explain other modifications of saddles, and will use every effort to secure for our customers just what they desire. Styles of Finish, We have felt that heretofore we have made too many styles of finish and like- wise too many sizes of machines. The 54 inch machines are too large except for tall persons or racing on smooth tracks, as it takes strength to drive them and of course cannot be made as light as small machines. And as regards finish the American Star will be furnished in four styles this season, viz: Plain (being painted); Full enamel (except trimmings which are nickeled); Tyo thirds nickeled (the wheels being enameled), and Full nickeled (including rim and all). The Special-and Semi-Racing Stars will be finished in three styles, viz: Full enamel, Two-thirds nickel, and Full nickel. The enamel will be black and may be finished with a dead lustre or bright and glossy as desired. Hollow rims and tangential wheels are finished in enamel as they are difficult to polish and nickel. In reference to our Nickel we will gay that we first put on a good coat of cop- per and then all the nickel it will bear, but it will be found necessary to occa- sionally oil the nickeled parts if living close to salt water. Roller and Ball Bearings, to Large Wheels. We have almost daily inquiry for one or all of the above and we will say that as to Rollers we have been using them for the past three years and with good satisfaction, but of course they lack adjustability. As to Balls we are also teat- ing them and if they prove to be durable they will be presented to the public when fully perfected. Patents. We have not procured a long array of Patenta but those we have secured are right to the point and secure to us the exclusive right to manufacture the Star in its various forms, and we have set aside a respectable sum of money for the pro- tection of our just rights. The following patents will give an idea of what we claim, and there are a number of applications pending for improvements devel- oped during the past few years: Patent No. 233640. 8 8 : : ‘ October 26th, 1880. 2 ‘ 234722, ; ‘ : 2 . November 23rd, 1880. fe ‘258559. ‘ : à 5 : . May, 30th, 1882. « “ 992562. Fe PSOE January 29th, 1884. « “304827. ; , j à . September 9th, 1884. a “ 391819. | Mew Oceanis Wiese, Kowsuly 7th, 1885: % 321932. ‘ , i 8 : July 7th, 1885. sf “ 881199. ‘ jd . November 24th, 1885. es “ 350994. 5 : } ; : October, 19th, 1886. a * 850995. ; : ; és ' October, 19th, 1886. # “ 358494. 5 a : 8 6 . March, Ist, 1887. And a number Pending. (14) Records and Meritorious Performances. As a Safety the Star Holds All Accepted World's Records from 1-4 to | 20 Miles. One-half mile in 1m. 16sec., and One mile in 2m. 38sec , by Joseph Powell, on | a 40-inch Pony Star. One mile in 2m. 38 2-5sec., by Charles Frazier, on a 54-inch Racing Star. Two miles in 5m. 36 1-5sec., by Geo E. Weber, on a 54-inch, 45 pound Star. Three miles in 8m. 31 1-5sec., by Joseph Powell, on a 44 pound Star HANDS OFF’. One half mile in 1m 29sec; One mile in 3m. 3-5sec., by Chas. H. Chickering | on a 54 inch, 60 pound Star. RIDE AND RUN. | One-half mile in 2m. 1-2sec., One mile in, 4m. 23sec., by C. B. Ripley, on a | 51-inch, 55 pound Star. | TEER ROAD: The World's Record for 50 and 100 Miles in open Contest 50 miles, 3 hours 7m. 38} seconds. 100 miles, 6 hours 57 minutes, by Geo E. Weber. | New York and New Jersey Team Road Race—25 miles in 1h. 37m. 12 2-bsec., by H. J. Hall, Jr., on a 48 iuch Semi Racer Star. World’s Record for 24 honrs, 305 miles, by Alfred A. McCurdy. He also captured all the records from 150 up to 305 miles. He made this won- derful race and record on a 48 inch Star bicycle weighing about 50 pounds, thus proving tbat speed can be made on the smaller machines, and also that the ma- chines need not be so light as to be unsafe for ordinary roads. TE EE EE All Hill Climbing Contests at Corey Hill have been won on the Star. First in 1883 by Burt Pressey. Second in 1885 by W. W. Stall. Third by Geo. E. Weber in 1886, also at Eagle Rock Hill, near Newark, N. J. Only four riders, have ever succeeded in ascending the hill and they all used the Star. C. H. Chickering holds the record, 9 minutes, made in Contest, Sept, 20th, 1886. Hal Greenwood of St. Louis, Mo., climbed Corey Hill, four consecutive times, on his Star, without dismounting from his wheel. Afterwards, on the same day, he rode up the front side of Corey Hill and down the Brookline side and then back, up and over the hill to the foot of Corey and place of starting without a dismount. First Premiums. Grand Gold Medal Awarded at the Atlanta Cotton Exposition, 3 8 1881. Ee ke Ee 5 “New Orleans World’s Exposition, . 1885. “ Silver “+ GE “ Philadelphia Novelties Exposition, . 1885. GEen ene ns “ Louisville Cotton Exposition, fee. 1883, id 5 ae ‘6 “Cincinnati Exposition, ; 5 : 1882. OS 5 “ New England Mechanica Fair, . … 1881. A Large Number of First Premiums from State and County Fairs all over the | United States for | “THE BEST BICYCLE.” ie (15) + The American Star Bicycle. The late machines of this pattern have given the highest of satisfaction and the demand for them has been constantly increasing. It may be briefly de- scribed as follows: The rims and tires are of our new patent sections and for 48 and 61 inch ma- chines are preferably made of No 2. size, but the size will be increased or dimin- ished to meet the conditions of rough or smooth roads. The spokes pass through the hub flange and screw into patent round seated nuts that are case-bardened. The spokes being our patent double butt-ended solid drawn style. The clutch is ofthe Gravity Paw! style, being positive and durable. The spindle hardened and fitted with patent adjustable safety collets. The levers are solid and fitted with two pins upon which to attach the driving straps. The pedals plain and the hinged end of lever secured by a plain screw-bolt. The framing is in solid halves and secured to the front bone sheath by patent compression clips A stay-rod from the upper connection to the lower rod braces the triangular fram- ing so as to resist the driving strain. The machine is surmounted with a long flexible spring and now fitted with a spring saddle. The small front wheel has direct spokes screwed into the hub and both wheels have plain bearings. The front fork and steering rod are continuous, the latter passing through the fram- ing tube to the handle bar and by this means the front wheel is separated from the framing by a coil spring shown in the engraving. This spring yields to the sudden rising of the steering wheel and hence pre- vents the otherwise fore and aft motion to the rider. It also permits the steer- (16) << pe [ ing wheel to rise over obstructions more readily and at the same time save the machine and rider from unnecessary jar. The macbine is fitted with the regular Special Brake as before described, which admits of a lower head. The hancle bar is now made longer and Bent Back or Cow-horn style. Each machine is fur- nished with Tool Bag, Spoke Wrench, Monkey Wrench and Oil Can. Weight 55 to 60 Ibs. The following are the styles, sizes and net cash prices : sa 3 à SSE = 8 83 Sas ah Sa 3 oF 53 3 ZES FE 53 afd EEE Eed AF a4 EES 2903 SES me SA aa qa Z wo el 854 EE pee 58 JE E88 PEL Ess PSE pe ph, ph, A gemd, 48, $75.00 $85.00 $90.00 $95.00 51, 80.00 90.00 95.00 100,00 54 85.00 95.0) 100.00 105.00 The following extras are applicable to the American Star: Hollow Hardened Steel Levers, $5.00 ; Adjustable Cones to front wheel, $5.00 ; Changeable Power Attachment, $5.00; Packing and Delivery at Station, Smithville, $1.00. De | Semi-Racing Star Bicycle. This machine won the Star races of 1884, and reduced the racing record to 2.41 for a mile. The machine differs from the regular American Star, mainly in dis- (17) 3 + Der + pensing with the jacket covering on the steering bar, and in omitting the coil spring over the front steering wheel, besides some other details and special fittings. As it is intended for useon Suburban roads, Park Avenues and smooth tracks special provision is made to have it meet such requirements. It is fitted with along flexible seat spring. The bearings for the spring and brake spoon are steel bushed in a manner that stiffen the framing and admit of lateral adjustment for wear. The framing of the machine is of steel and of solid halves and is connected together at hub by a hardened steel spindle ground true and smooth—at back end of the saddle support by a steel bush bearing through which a bolt passes, making the connection rigid in one direction—and con- nected to fine bronze bearings at the steering bar. Noiseless bumpers prevent any rattle in these bearings. As before stated the steering bar is not covered with a pipe or jacket, but hardened and finished in any style desired. The ma- chines are made “Low head” style and handle bars dropped to a convenient posi- tion and fitted with the regular Special Brake as before described. It is fitted with our patent silent ratchet, which is practically positive and noiseless, and will admit of running the machine backwards. The tires are of the improved flat-seated kind with contractile base and the rims also flat grooved and provided with a deep rib to increase the vertical strength. The Spokes are the Patent solid drawn double butt ended, headed undera heat, and screwed into case hardened nuts which are encased within the hub flanges These nuts are held within a groove so they will not turn and at the same time presents a line contact in the hub so that the driving strain of the wheel will not break the spokes. The nuts admit of any vertical motion due to the suspension action of the wheel which prevents the spokes from getting loose as they remain station- ary in the rim. The Hub is made solid and of steel drop forged. The levers are of Seamless Hollow Tubing and hardened, with plain pedals and two pins for straps,and the hinged ends are secured by adjustable cone bearings. Large wheel has plain bearings; Small wheel adjustable Cone bear- ing but can be fitted as per extras below. The machine is furnished with solid vulcanite handles, a Kelley Spring Sad- dle, Tool Bag, Spoke and Monkey Wrench, and Oil Can, and all the parts are finished with great accuracy : and especial pains are exercised in getting a fine finish and making in every respect a high class machine. Weight from 45 to 50 lbs. The following are the styles, sizes and net cash prices : of in on NE À i sh ily 2 ie i i ge à 5 Boe 48 © À g SE 4 Z sel 5 out Lp Ee zi EER 23 hs, rs om men, no, 48, $102.00 $107.00 $112. 00 51, 107.00 112.00 117.00 54, 112.00 117.00 122.00 Exrras:—Roller Bearings for large wheel, $10.00; Ball Bearing to front Wheel, $8.00 ; Changeable Power Attachment, $5.00; Hollow framing, $10.00 ; Hollow Rims, $5.0; Hollow Handle Bars, $2.50. Packing and Delivery at Station, Smithville, $1.00. (18) The Special Star Bicycle. This machine is on the lines of the Semi-Racing Star, differing only in the fact that the seat spring is provided with an oscillating spring at the front end, while the back end is hinged on a hardened steel bush or bearing that will admit of a fore and aft motion. The bearing on the front end of seat spring is also on a steel bushing while the oscillating spring is clamped firmly to the upper stay-rods of the framing of the machine. It will be understood that the front wheel in passing over an obstruction will produce a fore and aft motion to the rider which not only consumes power but is uncomfortable to the rider and straining to the machine. The rider being thus auspended between springs which admit of this compensating motion can go over the roughest of roads as if sitting in a cradle—or rather the rider sits still while the machine oscillates under him. It is medium weight and strength has not been sacrificed for lightness nor durability for cheapness. The machine has our new “Special brake” as before described, and is fitted with long easy seat spring. It is supplied with an improved Kelley Spring Sad- dle. The Handles are of solid vulcanite black rubber. The steering bar is made of the best weldless steel tubing carefully tempered. The bearings above and below are of fine bronze the lower one adjustable, and each provided with noise- less bumpers. The front fork is semi-hollow, being forged from solid steel and is brazed to the steering bar. The Bar and Fork have been greatly strengthened this year. (19) Ben ee The framing is in solid halyes and the levers which are of seamless hollow tubing and hardened, are provided with adjustable cones at the hinged ends ; the pedals are plain, faced with corrugated rubber. The rims are solid and No. 2in section, unless otherwise ordered. The large wheel has plain bearings ; small wheel’ has cones and provision is made for lateral adjustment, and therefore the wheel can be adjusted toa “hair.” The wheels are of the “Direct spoke” type, except that in the large wheel the spokes pass through the hub flange and into round-seated, case hardened nuts, in a manner to greatly reduce the percentage of breakage. The line contact of the nut being parallel with the spindle prevents bending of the spoke due from the usual driving strain, and at the same time allows the suspension action of the spokes through the hub with- out loosening in the rim and hence the spokes do not become loose. The main spindle is made of mild centred steel and is made as hard on the surface as fire and water will make it and then ground smoothly and accurately to size. The spindle is now secured in the frame by jamb nuts that will not work loose. The Collet is of the hollow type, thus allowing a long and substantial bearing to the driving mechanism. All of the details are made with great accuracy and a fine finish is imparted to every piece. Each machineis furnished with Tool Bag, Spoke and Monkey Wrench, and Oil Can. Weight from 50 to 55 lbs. The following are the styles, sizes and net cash prices : nij zij “4 a ñ | 3 = © ta © B „=S ox E29 Bay 34 85 Bess. Seg dE + eae zaad EE £a SAGE EE a 13 52535 Sei #3 KES 53E63 ozs 559 PE ÉÉEAS RSS ROS —_— rs —_“"“ ph, 48, $107 00 $112 00 $117.00 51, 112.00 117 00 122.00 54, 117.00 122 00 127.00 The following extras are more or less applicable to the machine: Roller Bearing for Jarge wheel, $10.07; Balls to front wheel, $3.90; Changeable Power Attachment, $5.00; Hollow Framing, $10.00; Hollow rims, $5.09; Hollow Han- dle-bar, $2.50. Packing and Delivery at Station, Smithville, $1 0). —_—_—_—_—)—— ae” Evanston, Ill., Jan. 28, 1887. H. B. Sxrra MacHiNE Co. Gentlemen :—Now that I have tried the Star machine for a year I must say it has proved a most excellent investment. I commenced riding for the sake of my health, but despite the difficulty of learning (and this was no easy task for I was over 40 years of age and both heavy and clumsy) I soon found its use a constantly increasing pleasure. Half the summer had not gone before I found that I had almost abandoned walking. I have used it on all-sorts of roads, in all sorts of weather and regard it as superior to every other machine in the market. Very Truly Yours, Ront. Bargp, (20) Prof. of Greek, Northwestern University. The Pony Star Bicycle. This machine belongs to the Dwarf Family and was first brought out by us in 1881. The Star beinga complete Safety Machine and having met with such popular favor, other manufacturers have been induced to make attempts in the game direction with the results of what might be termed “Semi-Safety” bicycles. Comparatively safe because they are dwarf in size, and secondly because the rider either sits back on the small wheel or between the two wheels. The organization of the Star fortunately admits of the rider sitting back and directly over the driver with no weight on the small front wheel—the weight of the latter being sufficient to steer the machine. Hence it has not been necessary to make the front wheel larger than } the diameter of large wheel. Our plans in- clude small drivers, 42 and 45 inch diameter, and small wheels 21 and 22 inches. Besides the difference in size of machine the Pony Star has the hinged ends of the levers dropped of lowered sv as to place the arc movement of the foot just right—this of course varies when a large man rides a small machine. If we know length of leg can always send machine with suitable levers. The Pony Star may be made of any of the different classes—either American Star, Semi-Racing, Special or Racing Star, as it was upon this latter, that Joseph Powell made a mile in the very creditable time of 2.38. The engraving repre- sents a Special Pony. Nearly all of the extras are applicable to this machine. Itis fitted with No. 2 or No. 3 tires and has Cow-horn handle-bar to admit of the limbs coming up for a full stroke or for convenience in mounting without striking the bar. The (21) > machine is furnished with solid Vulcanite handles, a Kelley Spring Saddle, Tool Bag, Spoke and Monkey Wrench and Oil Can. Weight from 40 to 45 lbs. The following are the prices in the different styles : sa age OH A 8 a4 wae 2 og Eg 33 Bg BES zagA SE go rs ofa aga 5 CE 5 ÊE Som 248 © A= om av ae « Oe lg HAB 8 5 57 dd Et) EE EE 3 saf © 34 SEE d 47 JA : . 350 844 ARS ÊSE EEK ROS Comme pmm, ms, eS me, Pony American Star, 42 & 45 $75.00 $85.00 $90.00 $95.00 ‘ Semi-Racing Star, 42 & 45 102.00 107.00 112.00 Special Star, 42 & 45 107.00 112.00 117.00 Racing Star special price. The following Extras are more or less applicable to the Pony Special Star and Pony Semi-Racer Star :—Roller Bearings for large wheel, $10.00; Ball Bearing to front wheel, $8.00; Changeable Power Eee ment, $500; Hollow framing, $10 00 ; Hollow Rims, $5.00; Hollow Handle Bars, $2.50, Packing and Delivery at Station, Smithville, $1.00. The Racing Star Bicycle. The machine is made light consistent with strength and is very rigid. The framing except the back stays is hollow, the handle bar and levers hollow, the (22) en latter having cones at the hinged ends. The rims are hollow, of No. 4 section and the front bone of weldless steel tubing carefully hardened. A light hood forms a seat for a light spring saddle and the brake is of simplest form. The front wheel bearing is of balls and as an extra rollers are fitted to the large wheel. The hub is made froma solid steel forging and the spokes pass through a thin hub flange over a curved surface and radiate tangentially from notches to the rim’ where they are secured by nipples which extend through the rim so as to admit of adjustment without removing the rubber. This hub and plan of fastening was perfected during the winter and spring of 1882, and has since been copied by other makers. The spokes where crossed are ti ed with fine wire and soldered; also they are soldered at the hub to prevent working or movement, and hence the wheel is very rigid and resists the driving strain per- fectly. Fifty-four inch machines vary from 40 to 44 pounds and smaller ma- chines proportionately lighter. They are finished in any desired style except the wheels are enameled. Price, $150.00. Roller Bearings, extra, $10.00. Star Tricvcles. Ever since the Star Bicycle has appeared on the market—which was in the Spring of 1881—there has been more or less inquiry for a tricycle to be operated (23) by levers and clutches, and we would say that such machines have received fo or less attention from us during each year and we fully expected to have ™’Star Tricycles on the market years ago. In the April number of Tur Mecuanic | 1882, we described plans for a double driving Star Tricycle, nor have we aban- doned those early plans, but with a more extended experience we have developed a much simpler machine and have added some improvements not anticipated in our earlier considerations. The Machine asillustrated is intended for boys and misses, and is scarcely large enough for full grown persons. The driving wheels are 36 inch diameter with tires No.3 section, and the machine will just go through a 30 inch door. | The regular Star levers and clutches are applied for driving the machine and drive the spindles direct without chains or other connections—the driving is alternate, that is one lever drives one wheel and the other lever the other wheel, making it possible to turn within the dimensions of the machine if necessary, and by applying both feet at once the machine can be forced over the largest of obstructions or through heavy sand. The alternate driving does not affect the steering because of the improved manner of arranging the front wheel so that its contact with the ground will be in line with the steering bar centres—these centres are made long and compensating. The steering bar with brake con- nections are adjustable for any heighth to suit the size of rider or heighth of | saddle which is likewise adjustable. The bearings are plain but of ample dimensions to be durable, and are held in line by substantial framing. The levers are hollow and coned at the hinged ends where they are covered by an improved form of framing. The levers are provided with a substantial adjustable stop to limit the stroke at the bottom for coasting or dismounting, and there is also a limiting stop at the top. The saddle support and these stops being all adjustable as well as the steering bar, the machine is adjustable for the smallest child up toa good sized boy or young miss, and the advantages of the independent action of the levers and no dead centres the same as on the Star bicycle, are a great desideratum. The wheels on these machines have the late Star rim and tires and solid drawn double-butt- ended spokes screwed direct into the hub. We are now testing larger and smaller machines on the same general plan, and when ready for the market due notice will be given. The machines are preferably finished in black enamel with nickel trimmings and will be furnished | complete including saddle, scat-spring, tool bag and tools, for $100.00. Packing and Delivery at Station, Smithville, $1.00. (24) | L tn À The Training Machine, The engraving represents a Bicycle Training Machine showing a Star bicycle in position. The first few machines were made of wrought iron and have been in use for the last three or four years, and it was upon one of these that Weber developed his wonderful proportions. The machines are now made of cast iron and are adjustable in every direction so asto accommodate any size wheel. The uprights supporting the frame have also a fine screw adjustment so as to raise or lower the wheel upon the rollers to make the running hard or easy as may be desired for muscle or quick work. The position ofthe rider is natural and the machine can be adjusted so as to imitate any kind of riding except perhaps coasting a long distance. The steering bar can be left loose so as to turn as in riding or it can be blocked so as to remain rigid. The machine is very complete in every respect and every club room and racing man ought to have one. Although the machine is somewhat elaborate and substantial it is afforded at a nominal price, and will be furnished for $20.00. (25) Care of the American Star. The machineis oneofthe most simple in mechanism of any made, and has as few parts as any, though to those not acquainted with the machine it has the appearance of being more complex. The only things that require any par- ticular attention are oiling the bearings, and keeping the ratchets clean. If the following instructions are followed carefully there can be no trouble: Keep bearings all well oiled, a little and often, every two or three days at least and if touring each day ; use good oil only. The ratchets are liable to become gummed up with oil and grit that works in and should be cleaned occasionally, but we do not advise bothering with them until they refuse to work properly. To clean the ratchets, having stood the machine upside down, first unhook the straps and remove the hooks; allow the boxes to spring back slowly till com- _pletely unwound ; then unscrew the outside Safety Screws and nuts and spring the frame off the ends of the axle ; pull the ratchet boxes off and wipe them out ; the pawlsshould be well wiped out with a cloth wet with turpentine or kerosene, and thoroughly dried. If necessary to get at the end ofa spoke or to repair the pawl cage, the latter can be screwed offthe hub very easily with a large wrench. To replace, see that the pawls on each side are in place, all pointing one way, and each with the longest face outward, then put the proper box carefully over each, and replacing the wheel in the frame wind up the springs, turning the boxes with the wheel till the right tension is attained, and attach the straps to the levers. The tension of the spring and position of the box may be altered without taking off the boxes, by means of the new style collet, which allows of the spring being backed without injury. To illustrate adjusting a spring : if the lever does not come up readily, take out the hook, allow the spring to unwind slowly, and then turn the box back till a decided click is heard, wind again and attach hook. If insufficient tension is ac- quired, the operation may be repeated ad libitum. Our illustrations and description (see page 8) will give an idea of the interior of the driving boxes. It is best to clean and replace one side at a time, but ifthe pawls and ratchets become mixed, place the pawl and ratchet together in which the teeth and pawls (the latter with flat side outward) point the same way when looked at from the exposed side. The pair which points in the direction of the sun’s travel will be the left. The spring should always coil in the opposite direction, and wind from the outer d with the wheel, i. ¢. forward. An occasional examination and trial of the various parts of the machine, with care to keep all nuts, bolts, and screws in their places and tight, will keep the machine in shape, so that it will not rattle. An unnecessary working of parts in a machine tends to weaken it, and causes it to wearout more quickly, and care used in preventing small beginnings will be repaid by the superior durability of the machine in the long run. A good tip to the Star rider, and one which will be specially useful when any cleaning or repairing is in hand, is ‘‘reversing the machine.’ This is done by standing it on its head, resting on the two handles and the end of the saddle spring. (26) i Care of the Special and Semi-Racer Stars, They are as simple as is possible to make a machine, and with a fair amount of care and adjusting will run silently and well. Oiling is one of the first and most frequent requirements of abicycle. In ap- plying oil it should be borne in mind that “little and often” is the better rule In oiling a Star it will be found betterto drop the lubricant into the oil-hole from a slight elevation and allow each drop to enter before applying the next ; in this way the air is allowed to escape and the oil reaches the bearing properly. The main points to be oiled are as follows: The driving wheel between the hubs; this oils everything in this part complete, no further attention of this kind being necessary as regards ratchets and springs on both sides. The small wheel, two levers, connection of front bar, top and bottom, bearing of spring at each end and of the brake, comprise the additional bearings to be oiled, and an examination will show the methods for so doing. Regarding adjustment ; the small wheel should be adjusted by means of the milled collar at the side of the bearing, the large wheel requiring no adjusting. Wear on the levers is compensated for by means of the coned bolts. Screw up the bolt from the outer end, afterward locking same by means of nuts on either end. Should the connections on front bar rattle at all, they should be attended to immediately. New washers may be had at small expense and are easily applied. The handle-bar should be kept driven home, as it secures the upper bearing and will allow it to come loose in turn. Keep lever springs properly adjusted as to tension. (See description of how to adjust Spring under “Care of American Star.”) Adjust spokes by means of a grip as ordinarily used, taking care not to get them too tight, as this would draw the wheel out of true. Care should be taken to have the bolt and nuts throughout the machine per- fectly tight, all parts nicely adjusted, and the saddle set well back over the wheel. By observing these directions the machine will give satisfaction where otherwise it would not. If it is allowed to become loose and rattle, the rider will not only obtain less satisfaction in riding, but he will annoy his companions. —_— oe Directions for Learning to Ride and Useful Hints to Riders. In learning to ride, it is important that moderation be used that the learner should not become fatigued, as it increases the difficulty of learning. HANDLING THE MACHINE —A beginner should watch other riders; he should take a machine and handle it. Wheel it about to get somewhat ac- customed to the different movements. To wheel the machine, stand on the left side, take the handle with the left hand, place the right hand on the spring behind the saddle, or on the saddle, and push with the right hand. LEARNING TO RIDE—The learner should select as large and smooth a plat of ground as possible for the first attempts. In the absence of an instructor we would suggest that he procure the assistance of a friend who will help him hold the machine and assist him in getting on. LEARNING TO FALL.—He should learn to fall before attempting to ride. In getting on the machine, his assistant should stand on the right hand side and hold it upright by grasping the steering shaft with his right hand and the back (27) 4 eg | end of he saddle spring with his left. The learner should take hold of both handles (if the bicycle is too high the right hand can rest on the saddle), stand close beside the machine, place the left foot on the step, lean the machine slight- ly to the right and with the right leg spring up on to the step; swing the right leg around the back end of the saddle spring, drop the foot on the pedal and press it down when taking the saddle; this will start the machine. When well seated take the left foot off the step and put it on the pedal. The assistant should let go of the machine with his left hand as the learner swings his leg around the saddle spring, and after he is mounted the assistant should change to the left side, taking hold of the back end of the saddle spring with his right hand. After the learner has got the machine in motion by working his feet alternately on the treadles, his assistant should let go, and if the machine falls to the left the learner must throw his right foot around in front of the steering | shaft, retaining hold of the handles with both hands, and he will alight on both feet, sustaining very little jar and saving the machine. Should the machine fall to the right, then of course the left foot shou!d pass around in front of the steer- ing shaft, and notover the handles. He should not jump, but wait for the ma hine to fall, and neither he nor the machine will sustain any injury. After | he has practiced these falls a few times so as to be able to usethem when de- sired, then he should learn the back dismount by sitting well back on the saddle, taking his feet off the treadles and pulling on the handles—the little wheel will rise and he will land on his feet, holding the machine in a vertical position be- fore him. LEARNING TIJ BALANCE-—First Ride—The learner must not attempt to mount alone, bat let his friend assist him as before, and when well seated the | assistant must take bold of the end of the saddle spring behind and assist in holding the bicycle ina perpendicular position, walking by the side of the ma- chine while the learner is propelling it by working his feet alternately on the treadles. The more speed attained the easier it is to retain a balance. The rider must sit erect, and guard against swaying his body from side to side as he alternates his feet to propel the machine. Particular care should be taken to turn the wheel genily, as at this stage a sudden movement, such as turning the wheel too much or lifting it from the ground, may cause an impromptu dis- mount. As the learner becomes more proficient, he will be able to maintain his balance by inclining the body, or pressing on the pedal opposite the side he feels the tendency to fall. Whilethus learning to preserve his equilibrium, the learner may frequently lose his balance, and when this occurs he will come down as he has previously learned. After he has practiced the right and left curves, and can retain his position in the saddle with some confidence, he is ready for the mount, LEARNING TO MOUNT—When learning to mount, a smooth place should be selected ; one with a slight descent is best. The learner must take the ma- chine by the handles (if too high the right hand can rest on the saddle), place his left foot on the step and give the machine a little momentum by hopping with the right foot, and as he is about to spring up on the step he must lean the | machine slightly from him, and when on the step, and the machine is well bal- anced he should swing his right leg around the back end of the spring, put his foot on the pedal and press down as he sitson the saddle. It will be best for him to have his assistant stand on the opposite side of the machine, until the mount has been made a few times, to catch the machine in case it is thrown to (28) 0 the right. Ifhe should fall to the right before properly seated his assistant will catch him, and if to the left he can easily alight on his feet. The machine is readily mounted and a few trials will suffice to bring it under control. Ifthe learner has been used to riding the ordinary bicycle he must get out of the notion of leaning back and pulling up on the hanitle-bar when going into holes and ditches. When running upasteep incline he must throw his weight for- ward. In,climbing hills the rider can lift on the handle-bar as much as he pleases, throwing his weight forward on the pedals. The tendency of a learner is to turn the small wheel too much, and too quick—a slight turn of the wheel will right the machine when itis falling to one side. When turning curves and circles the rider should incline his body in the direction of the curve. As a general thing a learner will lean his body away from objects be wishes to shun. and this will throw the machine towards them. The learner ought to be able to make the various dismounts with certainty, and feel that he has thorough control of the machine before trying to ride in difficult places. He should keep the soles of his feet on the pedals, pointing the toes downs when the pedals are down, in order to get a full stroke. LEARNING TO DISMOUNT—To dismount by the step, the rider must take his left foot from the pedal and put it down until it rests on the step, then rise up on his left foot and swing his right leg back around the saddle-spring and step down beside the machine, standiug in the same position as when about to mount. This is the easiest dismount and may be acquired ia a short time so it can be done when the machine is running at a high rate of speed. A pedal dismount can be made from either side. There are places, such as steep inclines, deep sand, bad holes and deep ditches, when the pedal dismount can be made and save a side fall; asit will often happen when riding in the dark or over rough roads, that the rider will not have time to make the step dismount. USE OF BRAKE.—Wishing to “slow up,” of course the rider will stop pedal- ing and use the brake. When riding in close order with other wheelmen, or in cities among teams and pedestrians, he should keep his fingers on the brake ready to apply it atany time. The Star can be stopped with the brake quicker than an ordinary can by back-pedaling and use of the brake too. The Star leads all bicycles for coasting, and with very little practice and a pro- per amount of care, a begiuner can coast any hill that is ridable with a carriage. When coasting, the rider can rest his feet on the pedals, or take them from the pedals and rest them on the foot rests; in this way he can rise up when going over an obstacle, and thus avoid much ofthe jar. In this way also, he can change his position as often as he wishes. If coasting very steep and dangerous hills, it is best not to let the machine run so fast that a dismount cannot be easily made in case of an emergency. By keeping the foot on the step the rider can be ready for a dismount at any moment. Notwithstanding the Star can be ridden down rough hills and into holes, with- out injury to the rider, it is very bad practice to do it at a high rate of speed, for it'puts a great strain on the machine. It is better to dismount and walk down rough hills. If riding in sand the rider must sit well back on the saddle, so the small wheel will be relieved of as much weight as possible ; in this way he can ride through very deep sand or mud. The machine must be kept under control and run in a straight course to accomplish the best results in sand riding. (29) [4 | | The knack of hill climbing is acquired only by constant practice. It is best to | climb a hill slowly. The rider should take it easy and use his strength to ad- vautage. When climbing, he must keep the full power on the wheel constantly. When one lever is going down he must raise the other foot quickly and get another hold just before the lever on the opposite side is down This is one of the grand secrets of hill climbing. Place the saddle 80 that the centre of the seat just clears the back .of spindle of the large wheel. This brings the weight on the driver in the most advan- tageous position. The small wheel should do no more work than cannot be avoided possibly. In bad going, ruts, &c., do not try to steer too much by the handle-bar ; culti- vate the faculty of managing the machine by the balance, and it will be found much easier. In night-riding sit fairly upright, putting the weight as much on the large wheel as possible. Do not put more weight than possible on the small wheel, as it must be ready to rise easily when any small obstacle is met. Should you run into a hole, throw the weight on the upper part of the stroke with one or both feet, and keep the body clear of the saddle; this will prevent plunging. Practice riding without hands whenever possible. It is extremely easy to attain, and valuable in giving the rider a perfect balance. In your first experi- ment, select a good piece of wide, smooth road, down-hill is best, and sit upright, getting the weight as much as possible on the large wheel. Drive along with a light hold at first till the machine seems to be going nicely, and then raise the hands, keeping them ready in case the balance is lost. The balance is retained by varying the pressure on the pedals, and corners may be turned with ease | after confidence is gained. mm} Cementing Tires, The following conditions are essential to the successful cementing of tires : 1. The felloe and tire should be free from oil or dust before the cement is applied. 2. The portions of rim and tire to be cemented must be thoroughly heated to insure perfect adhesion. 3. The tire must be laid evenly in the felloe, as, ifit should be drawn tight at one portion and left full at another, it would be apt to loosen at the part where the fullness occurred. 4, The cement must become thoroughly hard before the wheel is used. Directions. | Wipe off the dirt with a dry cloth and then carefully wash the surface to be cemented with benzine: add to the cement already in the felloe, if necessary by breaking off small pieces from the cake and putting in place; then melt by passing a hot iron along the groove or by holding a spirit lamp under the felloe, | | moving the flame from side to side and being careful not to burn the tire, or | by passing the Automatic Torch under the felloe. Whenthe cement is melted, | gee that it is evenly distributed, and then place the tire in the felloe and be | careful to get iteven. This done, continue heating the felloe with the lamp until the tire feels quite hot; scrape off the superfluous cement which has oozed (30) = out at the sides and let the machine stand for several hours until the cement becomes thoroughly hard. TO CEMENT A WHOLE TIRE.—Place tire on wheel with side to be cemented turned out; sear it slightly all around with a hot iron, in order that the cement may stick to the rubber ; remove tire, pour melted cement into the felloe and distribute it evenly ; replace tire and heat the felloe underneath as before described ; let stand 12 hours. We would recommend the Automatic Torch for heating to all who have much of this kind of work to do. i © The Standard Cyclometer. Simplest and Best Instrument ever Invented. The action is positive and continuous, thus mak- ing it reliable in every respect. Can be read from the saddle. Can be used with or without hub ip lantern. Registers 2500 miles. ee The mile dial is divided into Quarters, Eighths, Sixteenths and Thirty-Seconds ; at every revolu- tion of the hand on the mile dial, the long hand on the large dial will move forward one figure, and thus record each mile. While it reqnires 50 turns of the mile hand to make one complete revolution of the long hand, it also requires 50 revolutions of the long hand to make one revolution of the short or fifty mile hand, and they all return to zero together. We furnish a Certificate of Accuracy which is sent out with every Cyclometer after being tested and found to be correct. In ordering give size and make of wheel, also size of axle, and length of axle between the hub shoulders inside. Price, $10.00. — The Brooks Ideal Cyclometer. This instrument is specially designed to meet the demand for a strictly first-class Cyclometer ata moderate cost. Inthe simplicity of its construc- tion, and in the directness ‘and certainty of opera- tion it is unrivalled by any Cyclometer made. Be- ing entirely without weights or springs, and its few parts being always in gear, it is the least likely to get out of order. Its weight is 10 ounces, about one- halfthat of other direct acting Cyclometers. The collar enclosing the hub of the bicycle has rubber packing, rendering its attachment to hubs of dif- ferent sizes very easy. (This is an important im- provement, peculiar to this instrument.) The glass front is the best thick watch crystal. The dial, which is the size of an ordinary watch dial, records miles and tenths to 1000 before repeating ; reading up to 10 miles by means of the small stationary pointer, and 10 miles for every space moved over by the hand. Price, $5.00. (31) 257 enn AC Perfection Alarm. The construction of this excellent alarm enables {he rider to ring it without letting g> the handle. The spring to ring the alarm is contained within the bell, and is wound up by a button on outside of rame. The alarm is sounded by a slight preesure on the projecting lever—a simple alarm, a succes- sion of strokes or a continuous a’arm at pleasure. Price, $2.£0. Postage, 20 cents. nn Hart’s Standard Bells. These bells are the most substantial of the various bells offered to cyclists, ring well, and aro the neatest low-price bells made. They are attached to the handle-bar in such a manner that the gong cannot jar loose. Medium Size Open Base, Swing Clapper $1.00. The Star Lamp. This Lamp has been improved in all essential points. It will stand a strong wind without flickering, rough roads as well. Use a fresh wick every week ; keep it well trimmed ; tura flame as high as the lamp will bear ; burn the best signal oil Much trouble comes from the poor cil and a foul wick ; clean your lamp often. Price, Japanned, 6 5 $5.00 “ Nickeled, 5 8 6.50 Telescopic Tool Bag. Nicely made and convenient. Price, $1.25. The Star Touring Bag. Handy and useful to carry books, papers, writing materials, lunch etc, when using the wheel for business, or for holding all clothing, tools, etc, necessary for an extended tour. Being placed behind the saddle (see cut), it does nit interfere with the rider, either in mounting, or dismounting or while in the saddle. Price, Canvas, 9s9x3 inches, : : : $4.00 «Leather, 9x6x3 “ . ; 5.00 ss S 9x9x3 ‘ 8 8 5 6.00. This Saddle is no experiment—it has been thoroughly tested on all kinds of roads by the best Star Riders of this country, and found to possess many good qualities. Price, enameled, $3.50; nickeled $4.50. mj Bundle Carrier. It is fastened on front rod as shown in cut; itis notin the way while riding or coasting ; with this Carrier one can carry a gun, fishing-rod, or touring outfit, Price, $2.00. Postage 10 cents. (33) > The Star Step. It enables learners to mont more readily Price, $1.00. Adhesive Tire Tape. æThin as paper, strong as leather. Tough as whalebone. It is one of the essen- tial accessories, and should be found in every ‘Cyclist’s tool-bag. | Price, - - - - - 20 cents. Foot Rest. For coasting, can be attached to any Star. In ordering give size of steering rod. Price, $1.00. (34) Price List of Sundries. Anti Rust per Box, e Bag for Tools, ‘Touring, Canvas, . Sites Se Leather, emall, . o . “ « « « large, 3 5 Bells, Harta Standard, 5 4 o “ Perfection Automatic, Cement for holding tires in rims, 25 cts. per quarter lb, per lb, & & Mending cut Tires, per bottle, Cyclometer, Brooks Ideal, 8 Lakin, Enamel, per bottle, Handy Hooks, per pair, . : Hoge, L. A. W., extra heavy, per pair, (any color) ‘ Supporters, Handles, Soft Rubber, each, a Solid Vulcanite Rubber, each, “ “ “ “ for Brake, each, “ se «. for Spade, each, Lanterne, Nickeled, i Japanned, Lock and Chain, Luggage Carrier, Oil for Lubricating, pint cans, 50 cts, qt. cans, Oil Can for Pocket, Polishing Paste for Cleaning Nickel, . se Powder, Rubber Handles, soft per pair, Star Riders Manual, Saddle, Improved Kelley, Ris saledt $4.00, Nickeled Common Suspension, ; “ Corson’s Enameled, $350. Nickeled, “ Cricket, Nickeled, “Lillibridge, ‘* Kirkpatrick, Step for Star, C Tor h, Antomatic for heating rims to Cement, Tire Tape, per package, 6 Tourisi's Delight, (Corson’s Filterer) 5 Wrenches, Billings & Spencer, Plain, 75 cts., Nickeled, sf Spoke, Nickeled, Whistle, Duplex, with chain, (35) to 25

Star Bicycles, H.B. Smith Machine Co. (USA) Katalog (Kopie) 1887

Star Bicycles
Gerd Böttcher
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